ORNATE SPINY-TAILED LIZARD (Uromastyx ornata ornata)
Keeping and breeding at BION Terrarium Center
DESCRIPTION, DISTRIBUTION AND BIOLOGY
Uromastyx ornata philbyi Heyden, 1827 is a medium-sized representative of the genus Uromastyx. Maximum total length is about 37 cm, maximum SVL is about 19,5 cm. Scalation is homogeneous without enlarged spiky scales on the head, neck and dorsum. The dorsal surfaces of the hindlimbs have conical spiky scales. The front edges of the ear openings have 5-7 enlarged scales. 149-185 scales are counted at midboby and 75-99 scales between inguinal and gular fold. The tail is slightly flattened and consists of 20-30 whorls. On each side 7-14 preanofemoral pores are located (Wilms, 2005). Coloration is variable providing excellent diversity of color variants for mastigures’ fans. Colour of the males is green, blue or red, with an irregularly reddish brown net-like pattern and yellow spots on the back. Sometimes yellow cross-bands are present. Located on this ground color are irregular, dark brown vermiculations with inlaid, deep yellow irregular markings. In some specimens these markings fuse into cross bands. This species show clear sexual dichromatism. Ventral part of males has dark pattern. Females are not as colorful as males. Their colors are subdued and less vivid. They are light brown with dark brown spots and sometimes light yellow or light red spots. Belly has almost no patterns, being yellowish or white (Wilms, Böhme, 2007; Wilms, 2005).
A fairly good determinant of sex are also femoral pores, which are clearly marked in males. In sexually mature individuals, another method is to identify on the basis of the presence of hemipenis, which in males is clearly marked by two bulges at the base of the tail. It is hard to sex them in young age. Sometimes it is helpful to place a torch under the tail base of a juvenile. If you have a male you will see two long dark hemipenises inside. As the matter of fact this method is more reliable as the animals are getting older. So far there are no 100% reliable methods of sexing at early-aged animals.
This subspecies inhabits the Sinai Peninsula and adjacent portions of northwestern Saudi Arabia. In Israel, this species only occurs in extreme south around Eilat and the Wadi Makfa (Wilms, 2005). Their habitat is extremely arid with semi-desert and desert climate without severe winters but with temporary night frosts (Wilms, 2005; Bedir et al., 1994). Their habitat is characterized by rocky regions, crevices, gravelly desert areas up to 1000 m above sea level, and rock outcrops (http://www.reptilesmagazine.com/Lizards/Ornate-Uromastyx-Care-and-Breeding-Tips/).
Typically U. o. ornata live alone or in small groups, that have not more than one male. The animals excavate their own burrows that can be up to 100 cm deep (Bedir et al., 1994). Relative humidity inside such burrows is 30-60%, temperature ranges from +11 to +34 °C (Wilms, 2005).
They are the mostly active at the first part of the day. They usually mate at the first time of the day as well. After midday they usually have a rest on the stones or in their burrows (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uromastyx_ornata).
KEEPING AT BION TERRARIUM CENTER
Keeping. We keep adult U. o. philbyi in horizontal terrariums that should be long enough to provide temperature gradient. We use terrariums of 90*60*60 cm (35 *23*23 in) for a pair (1.1). We provide a layer of coarse sand or pressed loam as a substrate. Decoration includes bamboo steams, stones and artificial shelters (a ceramic plate on stones/2 bamboo trunks) along the terrarium’s perimeter and especially under the basking point. We keep them in pairs since animals of the same sex demonstrate aggression towards each other. On the opposite side from the basking place we make a hill of coarse sand that is lightly moistened during breeding season.
Lighting. Since these lizards are arid and diurnal, high light intensity is needed. We use LED lamps for lighting and a Raptor Solar lamps for heating and UV in one corner of the terrarium. We use them for making basking place above a ceramic plate. UV-light is necessary. Lighting period is 14 hours during mating season and 12 hours at other time except winter dormancy.
Temperature. Ambient temperature should be around +28 - +30 °C at the day and not lower than +22 °C at night. At basking place the temperature is about +50 - +60 °C. A flat stone/ceramic plate is placed under the basking lamp.
Humidity. Humidity level is low (30-50%). We spray sand lightly inside the shelter when female is gravid or twice a week at other period of time.
Water. Water bowl is placed inside a terrarium daily when a female is gravid and several weeks after egg-laying (until female fully recovers). We also place a water dish twice a month to adult animals at other period of time.
Diet. In the spring-autumn period we provide a salad, including: dandelions, nettles, arugula, basil, hemp, alfalfa, clover, as well as acacia flowers, roses and marigolds. In winter, we give a salad of: lettuce, Beijing cabbage, dill, parsley, arugula, basil, while adding dried herbs and flowers from the spring-autumn diet prepared in summer. 2-3 times a month we give a grain mixture of hemp seeds, lentils, millet, sorghum etc. When offering such grain mixture it is necessary to place a dish with water because this kind of food leads to dehydration and animals may need to restore water amount in their organisms. Animals that are younger than 1,5 years should not be fed with grain mixture at all. Once a week we offer bee pollen during the whole year.
We feed young animals up to 1 year of age daily. Food is placed in a dish. Some individuals may refuse to take food from the dish – in that case we put food just on the bottom of the terrarium. We offer food for adults every other day according to the amount of food eaten. We leave remains of the dried salad in the terrarium as these lizards eat them as well. During the breeding season, depending on the food consumed, we offer food either daily or every other day. At winter, it is mandatory to offer food 2 times a week. Normally we give bee pollen (1 pinch) at this time. Food can be put inside a dish or just on the plate at basking place.
BREEDING AND RAISING AT BION TERRARIUM CENTER
Winter dormancy is essential for successful breeding. We provide 3-4 weeks of +22 - +26 °C and 1-2 lighting hours. We don’t offer food during wintering. We hibernate only adult mature animals solely or in pairs.
Males demonstrate deep blue color with orange spots on deep blue background during mating season. Sometimes we introduce several females to one male for several days.
Gestation lasts about 40 days. Number of clutches per breeding season: 1. Number of eggs in the clutch can vary. In 2020 we already got 1 clutch of 10 fertile eggs.
The female lays eggs in a wet burrow that she digs in the sand hill in the cool end or makes it inside a shelter under the basking point. After oviposition, the female loses weight and feels very weak. It is necessary to offer high-calorie food daily, pollen twice a week, a water dish and no grains at all. The eggs are transferred to the incubator without changing polarity. A small recess is made in vermiculite and each egg is placed in such a recess individually at no more than 2/3 eggs’ height depth.
Substrate for incubation is wet vermiculite. Incubation temperature is around +32 °C. Hatchlings appear after 86-92 days of such incubation. Hatching process can be prolonged up to 2 weeks.
40 * 60 cm (15.7 – 23.6 in) is an optimal space required per 1 juvenile. The Shelter, ceramic plate at the basking point and water dish should be placed inside the terrarium. Babies must be placed separately after becoming 2 months old otherwise they will make harm to each other. Lighting and temperature requirements for juveniles are the same as for adults. UV-lighting is required. We use no substrate. We make regular light spraying daily or every other day until the juveniles are 6 months old. A petri dish with water is mandatory and should be placed closer to the basking point. Sometimes hatchlings can consume dry excrements of their parents which is necessary for normal development of digestive microflora. Food should be always inside the terrarium. Diet consists of the same finely chopped ingredients as for adults. We do not offer insects and grain mixture to the juveniles, meanwhile adding pollen to the salad 2 times a week.
1.. Wilms, T. (2005). Uromastyx – Natural History, Captive Care, Breeding. Offenbach, Germany: Herpeton.
2..Wilms, T., Böhme W. Review of the taxonomy of the spiny-tailed lizards of Arabia (Reptilia: Agamidae: Leiolepidinae: Uromastyx) // Fauna of Arabia. – 2007. – Vol.23. – P. 435–468
3..Bedir, M., Boulos, R., El-Nagal, M. Ecological studies on the fauna of Wadi Sahab area in south Sinai with special reference to the agamid lizard Uromastyx ornatus. – J. Ger. Soc. Zool. – 1994. - Vol. 13A, Comparative Physiology, Jan. 1994: 105-120.
8..map: (Wilms, Böhme, 2007)